Knowledge Session: Execution of Tupac Amaru 2

José Gab­ri­el Túpac Amaru (March 19, 1742 – May 18, 1781) — known as Túpac Amaru II hence the ori­gins of  2pac Shakur’s name (Tupac Amaru Shak­ur), — was a lead­er of an indi­gen­ous upris­ing in 1780 again­st the Span­ish in Peru. Although unsuc­cess­ful, he later became the inspir­a­tion­al fig­ure in the Per­uvi­an struggle for inde­pend­ence and indi­gen­ous rights move­ment and an inspir­a­tion to a myri­ad of causes in South Amer­ica.

Tupac Amaru I Am Hip Hop Magazine

Tupac Amaru 2 was forced to bear wit­ness to the exe­cu­tion of his wife, his eld­est son Hipól­ito, his uncle Fran­cis­co Tupa Amaro, his brother-in-law Ant­o­nio Basti­das, and some of his cap­tains before his own death. The fol­low­ing is an extract from the offi­cial judi­cial death issued by the Span­ish author­it­ies which con­demns Túpac Amaru II to tor­ture and death.

“It was ordered in sen­tence that Túpac Amaru II was con­demned to have his tongue cut out, after watch­ing the exe­cu­tions of his fam­ily, and to have his hands and feet tied “to four horses who will then be driv­en at once toward the four corners of the plaza, pulling the arms and legs from his body. The tor­so will then be taken to the hill over­look­ing the city… where it will be burned in a bon­fire… Tupac Amaru’s head will be sent to Tinta to be dis­played for three days in the place of pub­lic exe­cu­tion and then placed upon a pike at the prin­cip­al entrance to the city. One of his arms will be sent to Tun­gasu­ca, where he was the cacique, and the oth­er arm to the cap­it­al province of Cara­baya, to be sim­il­arly dis­played in those loc­a­tions. His legs will be sent to Liv­it­ica and Santa Ros­as in the provinces of Chumbivil­cas and Lam­pa, respect­ively.”

Upon the dis­mem­ber­ment by quar­ter­ing, he was then beheaded on the main plaza in Cuz­co, in the same place his appar­ent great-great-great-grand­father Túpac Amaru I had been beheaded. When the revolt con­tin­ued, the Span­iards executed the remainder of his fam­ily, except his 12-year-old son Fernan­do, who had been con­demned to die with him, but was instead imprisoned in Spain for the rest of his life. It is not known if any mem­bers of the Inca roy­al fam­ily sur­vived this final purge. Amaru’s body parts were strewn across the towns loy­al to him as ordered, his houses were demol­ished, their sites strewn with salt, his goods con­fis­cated, his rel­at­ives declared infam­ous, and all doc­u­ments relat­ing to his des­cent burnt.At the same time, on May 18, 1781, Incan cloth­ing and cul­tur­al tra­di­tions, and self-iden­ti­fic­a­tion as “Inca” were out­lawed, along with oth­er meas­ures to con­vert the pop­u­la­tion to Span­ish cul­ture and gov­ern­ment until Peru’s inde­pend­ence as a repub­lic. How­ever, even after the death of Amaru, Indi­an revolt still over­took much of south­ern Peru, Bolivia and Argen­tina, as Indi­an revolu­tion­ar­ies cap­tured Span­ish towns and beheaded many inhab­it­ants. In one instance, an Indi­an army under rebel lead­er Túpac Katari besieged the city of La Paz for 109 days before troops sent from Buenos Air­es stepped in to relieve the city.

 Glory to Tupac Amaru 2! Glory to our her­oes! Long live the res­ist­ance!

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Gata Malandra

Gata Malandra

Edit­or / Research­er at No Bounds
Gata is a music and arts lov­er, stud­ied anthro­po­logy, art man­age­ment and media pro­duc­tion ded­ic­at­ing most of her time to cre­at­ive pro­jects pro­duced by No Bounds.
Gata Malandra

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About Gata Malandra

Gata Malandra
Gata is a music and arts lover, studied anthropology, art management and media production dedicating most of her time to creative projects produced by No Bounds.

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